Coxarthrosis of the thigh joint

Diseases of the musculoskeletal system are observed not only in the elderly - they are also characteristic of children. Coxarthrosis of the thigh joint, the main symptom of which is severe pain in the affected area, can affect anyone, so you need to understand what the causes are and how to deal with it. Is it possible to dispense conservative therapy and when is surgery needed?

What is hip coxarthrosis

The whole group of osteoarthritis is a disease characterized by degenerative and deforming changes in tissues. Coxarthrosis among them is distinguished by the frequency of diagnosis, especially in women, and damage to the hip region occurs more often than others due to increased load, even in a person who is not involved in major sports. The rate of progression of coxarthrosis is slow, therefore, at an early stage, doctors' predictions are positive. The mechanism of disease development is as follows:

  1. The joint fluid thickens, its viscosity increases. The cartilaginous surface dries out, cracks are created on it.
  2. Friction of the articular cartilage leads to their thinning, pathological processes begin in the tissues.
  3. The process of bone deformation begins, the mobility of the hip area is interrupted. Local metabolism suffers, leg muscles affected atrophy.

Symptoms

The main symptom of dystrophic changes is pain: which can be localized in the groin area, in the groin area and even in the knee area. In this case, the nature of the pain depends on the stage of the disease - in the initial stage it appears only when the patient gives himself physical activity. Later, the pain becomes constant, even at rest, the pain area expands. Osteoarthritis of the hip joints is mainly characterized by the following symptoms:

  • stiffness of movements;
  • gait disturbances (up to lameness);
  • decrease in range of motion in the hip region;
  • shortening of the limbs with the affected wrist.
the doctor looks at a radiograph for osteoarthritis of the groin

Causes

Modern medicine divides all osteoarthritis into 2 categories: primary is characterized by the absence of obvious reasons for the appearance of the disease, excluding risk factors and some congenital moments. So, an indirect precondition may be a violation of metabolic processes or weakness of cartilage tissue, but mainly primary coxarthrosis develops against the background of:

  • prolonged stress in the joints;
  • spinal pathologies;
  • problems with blood circulation and hormonal background;
  • old age;
  • sedentary work.

Secondary coxarthrosis is a disease that is still supported by a whole host of diseases related to the musculoskeletal system, cartilage and bone tissue, or arises as a post-traumatic complication. Unilateral lesion of the hip area occurs mainly against the background of osteochondrosis and bilateral lesions of the knee joint. The main causes of the disease:

  • aseptic necrosis affecting the femoral head;
  • dysplasia;
  • Perthes disease;
  • congenital dislocation of the thigh;
  • inflammatory process (often complicated by infection) in the groin region.

Diplomat

Official medicine reports that deforming arthrosis of the thigh joint has 3 stages of development, for which the only common symptom is pain, which gradually gains intensity. The rest of the signs change with the progression of coxarthrosis, so it is easy to determine how advanced the disease is. The classification is simple:

  1. Grade 1 - narrowing of the joint space, head and neck of the femur are normal, but there is growth in the acetabulum.
  2. Grade 2 - X-rays will show a significant uneven narrowing of the gap, there is a deformation of the femoral head, which shifts upwards and enlarges. Bone growth at both ends of the acetabulum.
  3. Grade 3 - characterized by a significant narrowing of the gap and widening of the femoral head. Symptoms of this stage include persistent pain, muscle atrophy (due to impaired blood circulation to the joints), and shortening of the limbs.

Diagnosing

The main method to check the condition of the hip area in case of suspected coxarthrosis is radiography: the content of the image information is close to absolute - you can even find out the exact cause of the disease. As an X-ray supplement, your doctor may prescribe:

  • MRI (check for soft tissue problems);
  • CT (for a detailed examination of bone structures).
MRI to diagnose the hip joint

Treatment

Until the cause of dystrophic changes in the tissue is clarified, the patient's main task is to eliminate the symptoms - primarily to fight the pain and try to restore joint mobility. At the same time, doctors place a requirement to limit loads on the thigh muscles so that the disease does not take an acute form. In the initial stages, specialists choose conservative therapy; in a neglected situation, they will have to resort to surgery.

How To Cure Hip Joint Coxarthrosis Without Surgery

If dystrophic osteoarthritis was alleviated by congenital pathologies of connective or cartilage tissue, or the spine, treatment will only aim at preventing worsening and relieving the main symptoms. In other cases, the doctor acts on the cause of the illness for which the patient has been prescribed:

  • drug therapy (topical, injections, oral);
  • physiotherapy for an injured joint;
  • physiotherapy exercises (maintains mobility of the hip area);
  • massage;
  • diet.

Drug treatment

All pills and topical medications (ointments, injections) are prescribed to the patient according to the cause of coxarthrosis and the stage of its development. NSAIDs help relieve pain, but they will not cure - they just stop the symptoms. To improve blood supply to the joints and eliminate spasm, muscle relaxants and vasodilators are used, and chondroprotectors are used to restore cartilage.

Blockade

When coxarthrosis becomes acute, the patient should not only be treated but also facilitate his health by facilitating a joint pain attack. For this purpose, doctors inject novocaine, followed by a glucocorticoid drug that has strong anti-inflammatory properties. The blockage can last for several weeks, but the injection is chosen exclusively by the doctor.

Injections for coxarthrosis of the hip joint

Injections for this disease can be intramuscular, intravenous and into the ankle cavity. The latter - with drugs that replace joint fluid, based on hyaluronic acid, which protect and restore cartilage tissue. Intramuscular injections can be done with chondroprotectors and anti-inflammatory drugs.

injection for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the groin

diets

Correcting the diet to treat coxarthrosis will not help - it is only needed to reduce the load on the joints if the patient is overweight. It is recommended to completely abandon simple carbohydrates, consume more water and make sure to include in the diet dairy products, fish, buckwheat, beans and dishes based on gelatin (collagen) - jelly meat, jelly.

Physiotherapy

Heavy loads on a patient with coxarthrosis are prohibited to prevent disease progression, but the activity can not be abandoned - it helps maintain joint mobility. A set of exercise therapy exercises should be compiled by a physician and exclude axial load. The following options are available:

  • Lying on your back, slowly "pedal" with your legs raised for 15 seconds. Take a break, repeat the exercise.
  • Lying on your stomach and placing your hands on your hips, raise your straight legs alternately.
  • Lie on your side, lower your arm under your head. Slowly raise the upper leg and lower it.

Masotherapy

Manual techniques are indicated not only for the hip region, but also for the entire spine (withdrawal procedure), especially in the second stage of the disease. Massage helps increase blood circulation, strengthen muscles and reduce the load on their joint areas. Home massage is a circular rubbing and tapping of the affected hip area for 10 minutes, but it is important to remember:

  • Scratches and bruises should not be allowed - do not press hard.
  • You should feel how the injured joints and adjacent tissues relax, not the strongest spasm.

Physiotherapy procedures

Improving blood circulation and relieving vascular spasms are the main tasks of all procedures (from electrophoresis to UHF), but without drug treatment they will be almost useless, especially in the second stage of the disease and beyond. Often, treatment for hip joint coxarthrosis includes:

  • Magnetotherapy - exposure of the wrist to a magnetic field (constant / pulsating), which dilates blood vessels.
  • Shock wave therapy - the effect of waves on bone outgrowths to improve joint mobility.
  • Laser exposure - at a depth of 15 cm to improve metabolic and regenerative processes in the cartilage of the groin region.

operation

Surgical intervention is not recommended before the last stage of coxarthrosis, as many complications and negative results are possible for each operation. It is prescribed if the pain attacks can no longer be stopped and the joint ceases to function normally. According to doctors, in 95% of cases, a person returns to the normal rhythm of life and does not even lose the opportunity to play sports, and the remaining 5% fall into arthrodesis - bone fixation, as a result of which the limbs save onlya support function.

surgery for hip osteoarthritis

Arthroplasty

At an early stage of cartilage or bone destruction (often when coxarthrosis has occurred in the background of trauma), doctors prescribe restoration of missing surfaces. Arthroplasty is performed under general anesthesia: the surgeon pushes tissue or cuts muscle to enter the affected area, fixes the prosthesis in bone cement, and, if necessary, sutures the muscle or other tissue that has been dissected.

Endoprosthetics

Replacement of the hip joint with an artificial one (metal / ceramic) is performed only with its complete destruction, according to a scheme similar to arthroplasty. Before the operation, an examination is performed, during the procedure general anesthesia is performed. The prosthesis, which is placed on the patient, can replace only the femoral head or that, but with the acetabulum. During rehabilitation antibiotics are prescribed, the patient is kept in the hospital for 10-12 days and then the sutures are removed and sent home.

Consequences of the disease

The main risk of coxarthrosis is disability, which develops if the disease is not treated even in the last stage, or if the therapy is chosen incorrectly. Irreversible progressive changes will lead to the need to move infrequently, little and only with a cane. If you ignore the initial form of coxarthrosis, a person will have less serious complications:

  • posture disorders;
  • osteochondrosis;
  • leg shortening.

Prophylaxis

If a person falls into the risk group for coxarthrosis (both due to the presence of congenital preconditions and due to the influence of external factors), his main task is to maximally protect the cartilage tissue and the joint itself. It is important to monitor nutrition (the above diet for coxarthrosis of the hip joints), and also:

  • practice long walks or sports every day (swimming, gymnastics);
  • avoid coupling overload;
  • avoid hypothermia.